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Nordic Magic Healing

This is the bibliography for Nordic Magic Healing, Volume 1, relative to charms and to shamanism. I will be adding the references for Volume 2 very soon.

The Finnish tradition is illustrated in poems gathered by:

Lönnrot, "Kalevala" and "Kanteletar". I used them intensively in this first volume since these poems can be considered as a long galdr. Essentially I have consulted editions from Oxford University Press (1989 and 1992) and "Kalevala, das finnische Epos" published by Reclam (1985).

In French, early translations, very close to the original text, have helped me a lot. The verse version of

John Louis Perret "The Kalevala", Stock, Paris 1931

is very faithful, but instead I recommend, warmly, the following work to those who can find it in a library; the ancient translation in prose, of Léouzon-le-Duc, that contains many explanations about the Finnish culture and society.

In addition to the Kalevala, all versions of Finnish folk chants are interesting to read. Unfortunately, the only work devoted to this subject that I have been able to find is:

Matti Kuusi, Keith Bosley, Michael Branch, "Finish Folk Poetry - Epic", Finnish Literature Society, 1977, ISBN: 951-717-087-4.

It is a selection of Finnish folk chants collect by ethnologists and published in Suonen Kansan Vanhat Runot (Ancient poems of the Finnish people) 1908-1948. Their theme and their style are very close to that of the Kalevala. The differences among the several versions are of course very interesting to those researching Nordic pagan culture. The poems published in this work make up only a very small part of all the folk poems collect by ethnologists ; a vast majority of which has not been translated. There is an anthology coming from Karélie that I have not been able to consult unfortunately: "Karjalan Kansan Runot" ("Poems of the Karélië people", 1976).

The version of the "Landnamabok" (Book of Settlements) that I have consulted, above others, is the German translation published by Thule, Band 23, Eugen Diederichs Verlag, under the title of "Islands Besiedlung und älteste Geschichtë", 1967. A selection of texts translated into French can be found in "Landnamabok" tran. R. Boyer, Mouton 1973, Card # Lib. Congress: 73 - 79395. Unfortunately, this edition does not contain S198 which I used in the rune section of chapter 1. The original that I consulted is:

"Landnamabok Islands", Einar Arnorsson, Helgafell Reykjavik 1948.

The Lithuanian charms that I quote come from the Museum of the pharmacy of Kaunas and the following books (cited by my Lithuanian informants, but that I have not been able to consult):

J. Cicénas "Daugeliskiniai burtai",
Youri Lvov "Zagorovie, oberegi i spasitelnie yugitvi",
Baiba Meisteré "Perkuno funkcijos latviu folklore",
Dunduliene "Lietuvos etnologia".

The Highland Scotland charms come from:

Mary Beith, "Healing Threads", Polygon, Edinburgh, 1995. ISBN: 0-7486-6199-9.

The version of the Danish charms that I used can be found in:

Léon Pineau "Chants populaires scandinaves", published in 1898. The ‘official’ reference for these chants is:
Danmarks "Gamle Folkeviser". Collected by Svend Grundtvig. Part 1. Copenhague. Thieles Bogtrykkeri, 1853.

The Anglo-Saxon charms have been published many times. I have essentially used a 'literary’ edition (that also gives the original text), by

Louis J. Rodrigues, "Anglo-Saxon Verse Charms, Maxims & Heroic Legends", Anglo-Saxon Books, 1994, ISBN: 1-898281-01-07, and the following more technical book, whose author is a biologist, not a linguist:

M. L. Cameron "Anglo-Saxon Medicine", Cambridge University Press, 1993.

The book by:

Karen Louise Jolly, "Popular Religion in Late Saxon England", also contains many charms discussed in a religious context rather than a medical context as with Cameron. This work and that of Cameron’s complement each other harmoniously.

I must say that I also consulted some works dedicated to charms and incantations coming from mystical literature and that I didn’t find them very interesting: they always describe somewhat fixed rituals, without giving their origin. Their approaches are different from mine in the sense that I have carefully given the original version of the charm that I am citing (sometimes to the point of proposing an original translation of some words), and I show a possible adaptation, not an immutable and fixed truth.

The works of Hildegard of Bingen on medical knowledge are:

Hildegard of Bingen "Holistic Healing" The Liturgical Press 1994. It contains descriptions of a great number of sicknesses and their remedies, and some invocations that I have quoted.

Hildegarde de Bingen "Le livre des oeuvres divines" Albin Michel, 1982. It contains the mystical visions of the saint. Some of these visions describe the organic construction of the human body and the interactions among humours.

Hildegard de Bingen "Le livre des subtilités des créatures divines", Jérôme Million 1988. This one contains a description of the medical properties of plants and stones and most of the charms sited on this site come from this book.

The following book contains the most complete description of shamanic customs, and as well, it is easy to access for the non specialist (but not rigorous enough for the specialist).

Mircea Eliade, "Le Chamanisme et les techniques archaïques de l'extase", (1951).

Unfortunately, I have not been able to find this original French version, which is why I have used the English translation, "Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy", Arkana (Penguin), London 1989.

The works of James Frazer form an incredibly rich source of information on tales, folk customs, and shamanic traditions. The simplest to read is :

James G. Frazer "The Golden Bough" abbriged edition, Penguin, 1996.

The book of Max Bartels,

"Medizin der Naturvölker, Urgeschichte der Medizin", Leipzig 1893, Reprint-Verlag Leipzig, ISBN : 3-8262-0204-X,

is a unique source of knowledge about primitive medicine from all over the world, except Europe. I am very surprised that there is no English translation of this important book.

For more particular points, I have also used:

"Schamanengeschicht aus Sibirien", collected by G. V. Ksenofontov, translated from the Russian by A. Friedriech and G. Buddruss, Clemens Zerling, 1987. This important work is the basis of chapter 3 of this book.

Knud Rasmussen, " Du Groenland au Pacifique", Publishings of the Committee of historical and scientific work, 1994 (ISBN 2 - 0285-6).

Ake Hultkrantz, " La religion des indiens d'Amérique", Le Mail, Aix en Provence, 1993

Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum, "Rencontre avec des chamans du Mexique", Le Mail 1994.

Ruth Beebe Hill, "Hanta Yo", Rocher edition, 1993.

For modern shamanism, I recommend both of Sandra Ingerman’s books:

"Soul Retrieval : Mending the Fragmented Self", Harper San Francisco, 1990.

"Welcome Home, Following your Soul's Journey Home", Harper San Francisco, 1993.

Anne Ross’ article, "The Divine Hag of the Pagan Celts " and H. R. Ellis Davidson’s, "Hostile Magic in the Icelandic Sagas" , are published in

"The Witch in History" Venetia Newall (Ed.) Barnes & Noble, NY 1996. ISBN 0-7607-0123-7

As I said in the book, I did not use the Galdrabok, book of Icelandic magical charms, because it hardly deals with healing, but nevertheless this work is very interesting :

S. Flowers " The Galdrabok , An Icelandic Grimmoire ", Samuel Weiser, 1989.

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